Özel Öğrenme Güçlüğü Olan Öğrencilere Fen Bilimleri Öğretimi Üzerine Yapılan Çalışmaların İncelenmesi (2023)

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(Video) Özel Eğitim Akademisi Temel Özel Eğitim Programı ÖZEL EĞİTİMDE DEĞERLENDİRME VE ÖBT

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(Video) NEDİR BU BİLSEM? GÜNÜMÜZÜN ENDERUN MEKTEBİ: BİLİM ve SANAT MERKEZLERİ (BİLSEM)

Year 2020, Volume 21, Issue 4, 789 - 818, 01.12.2020

Gamze KARAER Macid Ayhan MELEKOĞLU

https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.532903

Cited By: 11

(Video) KADIN VE BİLİM VII- 2. Gün

Abstract

References

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Anderman, E. M. (1988). “The middle school experience: effects on the math and science achievement of learning disabled adolescents”, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence isimli kongrede sunulmuştur, Boston, MA, Mart 7-10, 1996.
  • Aydeniz, M., Cihak, D. F., Graham, S. C., & Retinger, L. (2012). Using inquiry-based instruction for teaching science to students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 27(2), 189-206.
  • Bakken, J. P., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Reading comprehension of expository science material and students with learning disabilities: A comparison of strategies. The Journal of Special Education, 31(3), 300-324.
  • Bay, M., Staver, J. R., Bryan, B., & Hale, J. B. (1992). Science instruction for the mildly handicapped: Direct instruction versus discovery teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(6), 555-570.
  • Benedek-Wood, E., Mason, L. H., Wood, P. H., Hoffman, K. E., & McGuire, A. (2014). An experimental examination of quick writing in the middle school science classroom. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal 12(1), 69-92.
  • Boardman, A. G., Klingner, J. K., Buckley, P., Annamma, S., & Lasser, C. J. (2015). The efficacy of collaborative strategic reading in middle school science and social studies classes. Reading and Writing, 28(9), 1257-1283.
  • Bos, C. S., & Filip, D. (1984). Comprehension monitoring in learning disabled and average students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(4), 229-233.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2011). Strategic note-taking for inclusive middle school science classrooms. Remedial and Special Education, 34(2), 78 –90.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2010a). Note-taking skills of middle school students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(6), 530 –540.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2010b). Strategic note taking for middle-school students with learning disabilities in science classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 93-109.
  • Botsas, G. (2017). Differences in strategy use in the reading comprehension of narrative and science texts among students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 15(1), 139-162.
  • Brigham, B. J., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2011). Science education and student with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(4), 223-232.
  • Bulgren, J. A., Ellis, J. D., & Marquis, J. G. (2014). The use and effectiveness of an argumentation and evaluation intervention in science classes. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(1), 82-97.
  • Cawley, J. F., & Parmar, R. S. (2001). Literacy proficiency and science for students with learning disabilities. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 17,105-125.
  • Gaddy, S. A., Bakken, J. P., & Fulk, B. M. (2008). The effects of teaching text-structure strategies to postsecondary students with learning disabilities to improve their reading comprehension on expository science text passages. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 20(2), 100-119.
  • Griffin, C. C., Simmons, D. C., & Kameenui, E. J. (2006). Investigating the effectiveness of graphic organizer instruction on the comprehension and recall of science content by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Reading, Writing & Learning Disabilities, 7, 355-376.
  • Gül Kuruyer, H., & Çakıroğlu, A. (2017). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin eğitsel değerlendirme ve eğitimsel müdahale sürecinde görüş ve uygulamaları. Turkish Studies, 12(28), 539-555.
  • Gül, Ş., Yazıcı, F. ve Sözbilir, M. (2016). “Görme Engelli Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Bitki ve Hayvanlarda Üreme, Büyüme ve Gelişme Ünitesine Yönelik Ihtiyaçları”. I. Ulusal Biyoloji Eğitimi Kongresi, 27-28 Mayıs, Ankara.
  • Güzel Özmen, R. (2005). Öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin okuma hızlarının metinlerde karşılaştırılması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 30(136), 25-30.
  • Güzel Özmen, R. (2009). Hayat bilgisi, sosyal bilgiler ve fen bilgisi öğretiminde öğrenme güçlüğü olan ve zihinsel yetersizlikten etkilenmiş öğrenciler için şematik düzenleyicilerin oluşturulması ve sunumu. Milli Eğitim, 181, 289-301.
  • Helman, A. L., Calhoon, M. B., & Kern, L. (2014). Improving science vocabulary of high school English language learners with reading disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 40-52.
  • Holahan, G. G., McFarland, J., & Piccillo, B. A. (1994). Elementary school science for students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 86-93.
  • Horton, S. V., Lovitt, T. C., & Bergerud, D. (1990). The effectiveness of graphic organizers for three classifications of secondary students in content area classes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(1), 12- 22.
  • Israel, M., Wang, S., & Marino, M. T. (2016). A multilevel analysis of diverse learners playing life science video games: Interactions between game content, learning disability status, reading proficiency and gender. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(2), 324–345.
  • İlker, Ö. & Melekoğlu, M. A. (2017). İlköğretim döneminde özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yazma becerilerine ilişkin çalışmaların incelenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 18, 1-27.
  • Kaldenberg, E. R., Watt, S. J., & Therrien, W. J. (2014). Reading instruction in science for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(3), 160-173.
  • Kim, W., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2013). The effects of self-regulation on science vocabulary acquisition of English language learners with learning difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 34(4), 225-236.
  • King-Sears, M. E., Mercer, C. D., & Sindelar, P. T. (1992). Toward independence with keyword mnemonics: A strategy for science vocabulary instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 13(5), 22-33.
  • Kooy, T., Skok, R. L., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1992). The effect of graphic advance organizers on the math and science comprehension with high school special education students, Journal of Special Education, 16(2), 101- 111.
  • Lam, P., Doverspike, D., Zhao, J., Zhe, J., & Menzemer, C. (2008). An evaluation of a STEM program for middle school students on learning disability related IEPs. Journal of STEM Education, 9(1), 21-29.
  • Lovitt, T., Rudsit, J., Jenkins, J., Pious, C., 8c Benedetti, D. (1985). Two methods of adapting science materials for learning disabled and regular seventh graders. Learning Disability Quarterly, 8, 275-285.
  • Lovitt, T., Rudsit, J., Jenkins, J., Pious, C., 8c Benedetti, D. (1986). Adapting science materials for regular and learning disabled seventh graders. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 31-39.
  • Marino, M. T., Gotch, C. M., Israel, M., Vasquez III, E., Basham, J. D., & Becht, K. (2014). UDL in the middle school science classroom: Can video games and alternative text heighten engagement and learning for students with learning disabilities? Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2) 87 –99.
  • Marino, M. T., Black, A. C., Hayes, M. T., & Beecher, C. C. (2010). An analysis of factors that affect struggling readers’ achievement during a technology-enhanced stem astronomy curriculum. Journal of Special Education Technology, 25(3), 35-42.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Magnusen, M. (1999). Activities-oriented science instruction for students with disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 240-249.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1992). Science for students with disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 62(4), 377-411.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., Emerick, K., & Scruggs, T. E. (1988). Mnemonic instruction of science concepts. Behavioral Disorders, 14(1), 48-56.
  • McCrea Simpkins, P., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2009). Differentiated curriculum enhancements in inclusive fifth-grade science classes. Remedial and Special Education, 30(5), 300-308.
  • McGrath, A. L., & Hughes, M. T. (2017). Students with learning disabilities in inquiry-based science classrooms: A cross-case analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, published online, 1 –13.
  • MEB. (1997). 573 sayılı özel eğitim hakkında kanun hükmünde kararname. Resmi gazete yayım tarihi: 6.6.1997 ve sayısı: 23011.
  • MEB. (2017). Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (İlkokul ve Ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. Sınıflar). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.
  • National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • National Science Education Standards. (1996). National committee on science education standards and assessment, National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
  • Olson, J. L., & Platt, J. C. (2004). Teaching children and adolescents with special needs. Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
  • Ormsbee, C. K., & Finson, K. D. (2000). Modifying science activities and materials to enhance instruction for students with learning and behavioral problems. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36(1), 10-21.
  • Parmar, R. S., Deluca, C. B., & Janczak, T. M. (1994). Investigations into the relationship between science and language abilities of students with mild disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 117-126.
  • Sazak Pınar, E., & Merdan, F. (2016). Grafik düzenleyicilerin otizmli öğrencilere fen bilgisi kavramlarının öğretimindeki etkililiği. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(1), 111-131.
  • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007). Science learning in special education: The case for constructed versus instructed learning. Exceptionality, 15(2), 57-74.
  • Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., Bakken, J. P., & Brigham, F. J. (1993). Reading versus doing: the relative effects of textbook-based and inquiry-oriented approaches to science learning in special education classrooms. The Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 1-15.
  • Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Boon, R. (1998). Science education for students with disabilities: A review of recent research. Studies in Science Education, 32(1), 21-44.
  • Seifert, K., & Espin, C. (2012). Improving reading of science text for secondary students with learning disabilities: Effects of text reading, vocabulary learning, and combined approaches to instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(4), 236 –247.
  • Sözbilir, Ö., Gül, Ş. Okçu, B., Yazıcı, F., Kızılaslan, A., Zorluoğlu, S. L., & Atilla, G. (2015). Görme yetersizliği olan öğrencilere yönelik fen eğitimi araştırmalarında eğilimler. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 15(1), 218-241.
  • Sözbilir, M., Zorluoğlu, S. L., & Kızılaslan, A. (2016). “6. Sınıf Görme Engelli Öğrencilere Isı Iletkeni ve Isı Yalıtkanı Kavramlarının Öğretimine Yönelik Etkinlik ve Material Geliştirme”. 12. Ulusal Fen Bilimleri ve Matematik Eğitimi Kongresi, 28-30 Eylül, Trabzon.
  • Steele, M. M. (2005). Teaching students with learning disabilities: Constructivism or behaviorism? Current Issues in Education, 8(10). https://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/viewFile/1607 adresinden erişilmiştir. Son erişim tarihi: 30 Ağustos 2017.
  • Therrien, W. J., Taylor, J. C., Hosp, J. L., Kaldenberg, E. R., & Gorsh, J. (2011). Science instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(4), 188-203.
  • Thornton, A., McKissick, B. R., Spooner, F., & Anderson, A. L. (2015). Effects of collaborative preteaching on science performance of high school students with specific learning disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 38(3), 277-304.
  • Wills, H. T., & Mason, B. A. (2014). Implementation of a self-monitoring application to improve on-task behavior: A high-school pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(4), 421-434.
  • Wong, B. Y. (1994). Instructional parameters promoting transfer of learned strategies in students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17, 110-120.

Özel Öğrenme Güçlüğü Olan Öğrencilere Fen Bilimleri Öğretimi Üzerine Yapılan Çalışmaların İncelenmesi

Year 2020, Volume 21, Issue 4, 789 - 818, 01.12.2020

Gamze KARAER Macid Ayhan MELEKOĞLU

https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.532903

(Video) ÖZEL EĞİTİM EĞİTMENLİĞİ TEMEL EĞİTİMİ

Cited By: 11

Abstract

Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de ve dünyada özel öğrenmegüçlüğü olan öğrencilere fen bilimleri öğretiminde kullanılan müdahaleleriiçeren ve 2008-2017 yılları arasında gerçekleştirilen çalışmaların incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir.Bu amaç doğrultusunda, alanyazında yer alan çalışmaların betimsel taramasıgerçekleştirilmiştir. Taramada Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma KurumuUlusal Akademik Ağ ve Bilgi Merkezi (TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM), EbscoHost, SAGE, SpringerLink ve ProQuest veritabanları kullanılarak konuyla ilgili hakemli dergilerdeyayınlanmış 20 makaleye ulaşılmıştır. Tarama sürecinde anahtar kelime olarak“öğrenme güçlüğü”, “fen bilgisi öğretimi”, “learning disability”, “learningdisable”, “science classroom” ve “intervention” kelimeleri kullanılmıştır.Araştırmaya dâhil edilen çalışmaların seçilmesinde; (a) 2008-2017 yıllarıarasında yayınlanmış olma, (b) hakemli bir dergide yayınlanmış olma, (c)müdahale çalışması olma, (d) özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencileri içerme ve(e) fen öğretimi ile ilgili olma özellikleri dikkate alınmıştır. Araştırmabulgularına göre fen öğretiminde kullanılan yöntemlerin etkililiği özel öğrenmegüçlüğü olan ve olmayan öğrenciler üzerinde karşılaştırılarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmayöntemlerine göre 18 çalışmada nicel, bir çalışmada nitel ve bir çalışmada isekarma araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada özel öğrenme güçlüğü olanöğrencilerle yapılan fen öğretimi çalışmalarının genellikle yurt dışında yapıldığıTürkiye’de henüz bu konu ile ilgili bir çalışmanın olmadığı sonucunaulaşılmıştır.

Keywords

Fen bilgisi öğretimi, özel öğrenme güçlüğü, müdahale

References

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Anderman, E. M. (1988). “The middle school experience: effects on the math and science achievement of learning disabled adolescents”, Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence isimli kongrede sunulmuştur, Boston, MA, Mart 7-10, 1996.
  • Aydeniz, M., Cihak, D. F., Graham, S. C., & Retinger, L. (2012). Using inquiry-based instruction for teaching science to students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 27(2), 189-206.
  • Bakken, J. P., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Reading comprehension of expository science material and students with learning disabilities: A comparison of strategies. The Journal of Special Education, 31(3), 300-324.
  • Bay, M., Staver, J. R., Bryan, B., & Hale, J. B. (1992). Science instruction for the mildly handicapped: Direct instruction versus discovery teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(6), 555-570.
  • Benedek-Wood, E., Mason, L. H., Wood, P. H., Hoffman, K. E., & McGuire, A. (2014). An experimental examination of quick writing in the middle school science classroom. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal 12(1), 69-92.
  • Boardman, A. G., Klingner, J. K., Buckley, P., Annamma, S., & Lasser, C. J. (2015). The efficacy of collaborative strategic reading in middle school science and social studies classes. Reading and Writing, 28(9), 1257-1283.
  • Bos, C. S., & Filip, D. (1984). Comprehension monitoring in learning disabled and average students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(4), 229-233.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2011). Strategic note-taking for inclusive middle school science classrooms. Remedial and Special Education, 34(2), 78 –90.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2010a). Note-taking skills of middle school students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(6), 530 –540.
  • Boyle, J. R. (2010b). Strategic note taking for middle-school students with learning disabilities in science classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 93-109.
  • Botsas, G. (2017). Differences in strategy use in the reading comprehension of narrative and science texts among students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 15(1), 139-162.
  • Brigham, B. J., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2011). Science education and student with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(4), 223-232.
  • Bulgren, J. A., Ellis, J. D., & Marquis, J. G. (2014). The use and effectiveness of an argumentation and evaluation intervention in science classes. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(1), 82-97.
  • Cawley, J. F., & Parmar, R. S. (2001). Literacy proficiency and science for students with learning disabilities. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 17,105-125.
  • Gaddy, S. A., Bakken, J. P., & Fulk, B. M. (2008). The effects of teaching text-structure strategies to postsecondary students with learning disabilities to improve their reading comprehension on expository science text passages. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 20(2), 100-119.
  • Griffin, C. C., Simmons, D. C., & Kameenui, E. J. (2006). Investigating the effectiveness of graphic organizer instruction on the comprehension and recall of science content by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Reading, Writing & Learning Disabilities, 7, 355-376.
  • Gül Kuruyer, H., & Çakıroğlu, A. (2017). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin eğitsel değerlendirme ve eğitimsel müdahale sürecinde görüş ve uygulamaları. Turkish Studies, 12(28), 539-555.
  • Gül, Ş., Yazıcı, F. ve Sözbilir, M. (2016). “Görme Engelli Ortaokul Öğrencilerinin Bitki ve Hayvanlarda Üreme, Büyüme ve Gelişme Ünitesine Yönelik Ihtiyaçları”. I. Ulusal Biyoloji Eğitimi Kongresi, 27-28 Mayıs, Ankara.
  • Güzel Özmen, R. (2005). Öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin okuma hızlarının metinlerde karşılaştırılması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 30(136), 25-30.
  • Güzel Özmen, R. (2009). Hayat bilgisi, sosyal bilgiler ve fen bilgisi öğretiminde öğrenme güçlüğü olan ve zihinsel yetersizlikten etkilenmiş öğrenciler için şematik düzenleyicilerin oluşturulması ve sunumu. Milli Eğitim, 181, 289-301.
  • Helman, A. L., Calhoon, M. B., & Kern, L. (2014). Improving science vocabulary of high school English language learners with reading disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 40-52.
  • Holahan, G. G., McFarland, J., & Piccillo, B. A. (1994). Elementary school science for students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 86-93.
  • Horton, S. V., Lovitt, T. C., & Bergerud, D. (1990). The effectiveness of graphic organizers for three classifications of secondary students in content area classes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(1), 12- 22.
  • Israel, M., Wang, S., & Marino, M. T. (2016). A multilevel analysis of diverse learners playing life science video games: Interactions between game content, learning disability status, reading proficiency and gender. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(2), 324–345.
  • İlker, Ö. & Melekoğlu, M. A. (2017). İlköğretim döneminde özel öğrenme güçlüğü olan öğrencilerin yazma becerilerine ilişkin çalışmaların incelenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 18, 1-27.
  • Kaldenberg, E. R., Watt, S. J., & Therrien, W. J. (2014). Reading instruction in science for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(3), 160-173.
  • Kim, W., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2013). The effects of self-regulation on science vocabulary acquisition of English language learners with learning difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 34(4), 225-236.
  • King-Sears, M. E., Mercer, C. D., & Sindelar, P. T. (1992). Toward independence with keyword mnemonics: A strategy for science vocabulary instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 13(5), 22-33.
  • Kooy, T., Skok, R. L., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1992). The effect of graphic advance organizers on the math and science comprehension with high school special education students, Journal of Special Education, 16(2), 101- 111.
  • Lam, P., Doverspike, D., Zhao, J., Zhe, J., & Menzemer, C. (2008). An evaluation of a STEM program for middle school students on learning disability related IEPs. Journal of STEM Education, 9(1), 21-29.
  • Lovitt, T., Rudsit, J., Jenkins, J., Pious, C., 8c Benedetti, D. (1985). Two methods of adapting science materials for learning disabled and regular seventh graders. Learning Disability Quarterly, 8, 275-285.
  • Lovitt, T., Rudsit, J., Jenkins, J., Pious, C., 8c Benedetti, D. (1986). Adapting science materials for regular and learning disabled seventh graders. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 31-39.
  • Marino, M. T., Gotch, C. M., Israel, M., Vasquez III, E., Basham, J. D., & Becht, K. (2014). UDL in the middle school science classroom: Can video games and alternative text heighten engagement and learning for students with learning disabilities? Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2) 87 –99.
  • Marino, M. T., Black, A. C., Hayes, M. T., & Beecher, C. C. (2010). An analysis of factors that affect struggling readers’ achievement during a technology-enhanced stem astronomy curriculum. Journal of Special Education Technology, 25(3), 35-42.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., & Magnusen, M. (1999). Activities-oriented science instruction for students with disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 240-249.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1992). Science for students with disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 62(4), 377-411.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., Emerick, K., & Scruggs, T. E. (1988). Mnemonic instruction of science concepts. Behavioral Disorders, 14(1), 48-56.
  • McCrea Simpkins, P., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2009). Differentiated curriculum enhancements in inclusive fifth-grade science classes. Remedial and Special Education, 30(5), 300-308.
  • McGrath, A. L., & Hughes, M. T. (2017). Students with learning disabilities in inquiry-based science classrooms: A cross-case analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, published online, 1 –13.
  • MEB. (1997). 573 sayılı özel eğitim hakkında kanun hükmünde kararname. Resmi gazete yayım tarihi: 6.6.1997 ve sayısı: 23011.
  • MEB. (2017). Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (İlkokul ve Ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. Sınıflar). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı.
  • National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • National Science Education Standards. (1996). National committee on science education standards and assessment, National Research Council. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
  • Olson, J. L., & Platt, J. C. (2004). Teaching children and adolescents with special needs. Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
  • Ormsbee, C. K., & Finson, K. D. (2000). Modifying science activities and materials to enhance instruction for students with learning and behavioral problems. Intervention in School and Clinic, 36(1), 10-21.
  • Parmar, R. S., Deluca, C. B., & Janczak, T. M. (1994). Investigations into the relationship between science and language abilities of students with mild disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 117-126.
  • Sazak Pınar, E., & Merdan, F. (2016). Grafik düzenleyicilerin otizmli öğrencilere fen bilgisi kavramlarının öğretimindeki etkililiği. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(1), 111-131.
  • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007). Science learning in special education: The case for constructed versus instructed learning. Exceptionality, 15(2), 57-74.
  • Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., Bakken, J. P., & Brigham, F. J. (1993). Reading versus doing: the relative effects of textbook-based and inquiry-oriented approaches to science learning in special education classrooms. The Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 1-15.
  • Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & Boon, R. (1998). Science education for students with disabilities: A review of recent research. Studies in Science Education, 32(1), 21-44.
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